For Punic, Coptic, and Aramaic or Syriac, a significant amount of epigraphy or literature survives. Millar, "Local Cultures in the Roman Empire," p. 127, citing, J.J. Wilkes, "The Roman Danube: An Archaeological Survey,". Compare and contrast two Hellenistic sculptures (Old Market Woman, Figure 4.16 and Aphrodite of Melos, Figure 4.17 on p. 110): their subject matter, treatment, and effect. Romans 13:11-14 exhorts us to live in the present in light of the future return of Jesus Christ. gymnasiums, and many taverns, baths and brothels.  Christian sources also mention the survival of Galatian, Cappadocian, Mysian, and Isaurian in Asia Minor.  During this period, Latin played only a subordinate role in the ecumenical councils, as did representatives from the Western empire. The Hellenistic time period began with the death of what great leader? Life in the Roman Empire revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills. You could say it lasted until A.D. 1453, when the Ottoman Turks conquered the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.  Saint Jerome reports an odd story about a Frankish-Latin bilingual man of the Candidati Imperial bodyguard who, in a state of demonic possession, began speaking perfect Aramaic, a language he did not know. Korhonen, "Sicily in the Roman Imperial Period," pp.  Latin loanwords appear liberally in Greek texts on technical topics from late antiquity and the Byzantine period. Egyptian and Greek deities, the God of the Jews and Judaic angels, and Jesus are named. Andrew Wilson, "Neo-Punic and Latin Inscriptions in Roman North Africa: Function and Display," in. The inscription is written in Latin and Palmyrene Aramaic, the language of Regina's husband, Barates, who has been identified with a standardbearer (vexillarius) of that name from Palmyra, Syria.  Constantine, the first emperor to actively support Christianity, presumably knew some Greek, but Latin was spoken in his court, and he used an interpreter to address Greek-speaking bishops at the Council of Nicaea. Romans 12:1-2 exhorted us to live in the present in light of God’s past mercies to us. Rochette, "Language Policies in the Roman Republic and Empire," p. 549; Charles Freeman, Rochette, "Language Policies in the Roman Republic and Empire," p. 549, citing. 157, 159. , The Romans placed a high value on the written word, as indicated by their obsession with documentation and public inscriptions. Fiona A. Youtie, "A Medical Prescription for Eye-salve,". To convey grandeur and power of the rulers. Each type had a different type of offensive weapon, armor, and shield. The epitaph of a Greek-speaking soldier, for instance, might be written primarily in Greek, with his rank and unit in the Roman army expressed in Latin. , Like the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible that predated the Imperial era, Jewish literature in Greek under the Empire was written mainly for Jews who spoke Greek.  Alexandria, founded in 331 BC under Greek rule and one of the three largest cities of the Roman Empire, was a leading city in Greek intellectual life during the Hellenistic and Imperial periods. Prose stylists who aspired to Atticism tried to avoid the vulgarisms of koine—an impractical goal, but this linguistic purism also reflected the 2nd-century flourishing of grammarians and lexicographers.  Written Coptic as a literary language seems to have resulted from a conscious effort among Egypt's educated class to revive their cultural heritage. The Danubian provinces lay within a geographical area encompassing the middle and lower Danube basins, the Eastern Alps, the Dinarides, and the Balkans.  The officers and secretaries who kept the records preserved in the Vindolanda tablets were Batavian, but their Latin contains no hint; the common soldiers of their units, however, may have retained their Germanic speech.  Syriac was in use around Antioch, one of the three largest cities of the Empire, and particularly by Christians.  Like Greek and Latin, these are categorized as Indo-European. Romans were famous for their extreme precision in recitation of vows and performance of sacrifices to the gods, meticulously repeating archaic words and actions centuries after their original , Christians in late antiquity might insert Hebrew into Greek exorcisms. , Roman law was written in Latin, and the "letter of the law" was tied strictly to the words in which it was expressed. With first the Republic and then the Empire in a constant state of war for centuries, serving as a military officer was the essential first step in … The manuscription tradition of medieval Jewish culture has preserved only writings in Hebrew and Aramaic.  In areas where Syriac, Coptic, and Aramaic were spoken, they coexisted with Greek.  The Jewish communities of Syracuse seem to have been bilingual in Greek and Hebrew. From the 5th century onward, it included Monophysite and Nestorian writings. Millar, "Local Cultures in the Roman Empire," p. 126.  Before the Roman conquest in 146 BC, nearly all Punic inscriptions had been votive to the deities Tanit and Ba'al or funerary commemorations, but during the Roman era a broader range of content is found in Neo-Punic, often appearing with parallel texts in Latin or Greek. , Inscriptions for the practice of magic in Gaul show the characteristic use of Greek for spells in the Imperial period.  In the first half of the 5th century, Greek coexisted with Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic in the Jewish communities of Palaestina Prima and Secunda, and is found in mosaic inscriptions even in synagogues. Loanwords from Gaulish are recorded in Latin as early as the time of Ennius (ca. 5–6.  These voces magicae ("magic words") occur throughout magic texts and inscriptions, and often suggest corrupt Coptic or Egyptian, Hebrew, Aramaic or other Semitic languages, and Celtic. Rochette, "Language Policies in the Roman Republic and Empire," p. 553; Lee I. Levine, Rochette, "Language Policies in the Roman Republic and Empire," p. 556; Adams, ". Such names seem often to have been chosen for their deliberate duality.  From the 6th century, Greek culture was studied in the West almost exclusively through Latin translation. 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